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Engaging Instructions in History Classrooms: Exploring University Teachers' Perceptions and Practices
This interview study aimed to explore the perceptions and practices of the university teachers regarding student engagement in History & Pakistan Studies classrooms. Data were collected from four PhD professors from a public sector university. A qualitative research design was used, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was done to extract findings from the qualitative data. The finding is arranged into three themes, i.e., student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. The finding suggested that teachers use different strategies and practices to improve student engagement. Moreover, teachers used different practices to make their classes interesting. It is reported that having a cordial teacher-student relationship is beneficial for enhancing student engagement level and overall performance at the postgraduate level of education. Effective classroom management plays a significant role in creating a positive learning environment for engaging instruction.
Classroom Management, Instructional Strategies, Students’ Engagement, Higher Education, Engaging Instructions, University Teachers’
Quality education in higher educational institutions is recently one of the most discussed phenomena, and researchers are highly concerned about the quality of content, delivery of content, institutional factors, and teachers’ role in alleviating education quality (Zaka & Muhammad, 2021). Recently the phenomenon of student engagement has grabbed the attention of the researchers, where student engagement is firmly considered as an important part of educational psychology.
Literature has various definitions of student engagement. In simpler terms, it is the student's desire, motivation, participation, and success during the learning process (Gunuc, 2014). Student engagement is not a new phenomenon, but researchers are highly concerned about students’ engagement level in the learning process. Student engagement phenomena provide an insight into how students engage with their teachers, universities, and the learning process. The same phenomenon is being rigorously researched in the UK, USA, Australia, and many other parts of the world (Coates, 2005). Student engagement is a process that elaborates how much actively students participate in their learning process and its impact on their motivation and performance. As reported by the Australian Council for Educational Research, 2001, even if the institute is well-reputed, organized, highly resourceful, has qualified teachers, and has a strong administrative system, an optimal level of student engagement is still required for effective learning process. Student engagement is never solely dependent on the students only. It is a reciprocal process.
Students, teachers, and institutes all play their parts to establish an effective learning experience. Lack of student engagement results in severe consequences like demotivation, declined performance, lower attendance, lesser class participation, or a dropout in the worst case (Appleton, Christenson, & Furlong, 2008). Student engagement is a phenomenon that needs to be understood very carefully as it is highly contextual. Ethnicity and diversity contribute to student engagement. Moreover, every county, community, and institute has its norms and values. The norms also have an impact on student engagement (Denson & Chang, 2009). Literature shows evident support for the positive teacher-student relationship as it contributes to student engagement. A considerable amount of literature explains student needs, demands, perception, and the factors that affect student engagement (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004; Hattie, 2003; van Uden, Ritzen, & Pieters, 2013; Zyngier, 2008).
Teachers play a significant role in increasing or decreasing student engagement levels and subsequently impacting students’ performance. It is crucial to study teachers’ role in student engagement, and this role cannot be understood without incorporating the fact that what teachers feel about student engagement and practice can contribute more effectively. Understanding the phenomenon of students’ engagement more clearly, a broader picture is required. This study aims to understand the perceptions and practices of university teachers about students’ engaging instruction at the postgraduate level for the subject of History and Pakistan Studies.
Student engagement is defined as the physical and psychological efforts put in by students. The magnitude of the efforts invested by the students during the learning process depicts the level of engagement (Axelson & Flick, 2010). Marks (2000) conceptualized engagement as “…a psychological process. Specifically, the attention, interest, investment, and effort students expend in the work of learning” (pp154-155). Other researchers include factors like enthusiasm to attend schools, psychological interest in mastering a skill, motivation to learn, and the intent to improve academic performance (Klem & Connell, 2004; Marks, 2000).
Student engagement has its significance in multiple aspects like student dropout ratio, program success, lower grades, market misfit, and students’ mental health, etc. Currently, student engagement is an actively used keyword. Researchers are putting up their arguments, and various theories have been established supporting student engagement’s active role in learning. Recent studies have suggested student engagement is beneficial for all students. However, certain students benefit more than others. Demographic, participation, cultural context, socio-economic, and many other factors can affect student engagement level (Trowler & Trowler, 2010).
Higher education institutes are under constant pressure and scrutiny to achieve the desired outcome in terms of the number of students, financial benefits, and government recognition. Student engagement plays a vital role in achieving these desired outcomes (Zepke, 2014). Student engagement is a complex meta construct that has an overarching impact on student success, must need to be understood comprehensively (Fredricks et al., 2004). Researchers identified four distinct perspectives from literature to understand the construct of student engagement (Kahu, 2013; Kuh, 2009)
1) Behavioral perspective: majorly focus on students’ behavior and teaching practices.
2) Psychological perspective: focus on individual personal choices and perceptions.
3) Socio-cultural perspective: focus on a person-environment, i.e., social and cultural
4) Holistic perspective: present a triangular view by incorporating all factors of student engagement research.
Previous researches have contributed to nine different factors that affect student engagement. These nine factors include feedback, challenge, openness, student-centric approach, enthusiasm, practical learning, care and encouragement, and developing interesting subject content. These factors are rooted in different dimensions of student engagement. Literature has identified three different dimensions of student engagement. This multi-dimensional construct impact varies among different cultures. Therefore, it is highly significant to incorporate the cultural context while student engagement (Fredricks, Filsecker, & Lawson, 2016).
Student engagement is linked to students’ motivation, perception, and learning. Challenging situations, a problem-solving attitude, a friendly environment, and an optimistic approach can help in enhancing student engagement (Klem & Connell, 2004). Oppositely, if a student is threatened by the situation or feels uncomfortable, failing to comprehend a situation, procrastination, and being mentally or physically unable to participate in the learning process can reduce student engagement. As a result, negative feelings arouse in students like sadness, anxiety, fear, blame, denial, depression, etc. (Zepke, Leach, & Butler, 2014).
Several key factors that affect student engagement were identified by researchers. Literature from different countries like the UK (Trowler & Trowler, 2010), New Zealand (Zepke & Leach, 2010), USA (G. Kuh, Kinzie, Buckley, Bridges, & Hayek, 2006) draw similar factors about student engagement, i.e., teachers role, student motivation, perception, classroom, and institutional environment, etc. A significant chunk of literature focused on the perceptions of the student. The studies suggested results about students’ understanding of what engages them. This research will focus on the teacher’s perception of student engagement or the methodologies used by teachers to engage their students.
Positive outcome during a learning process is highly dependent on student engagement. Teachers are the ones who create a learning process or a classroom environment. The positive teacher-student relationship, teachers’ support, the interactive classroom environment can help in alleviating student engagement levels (Fredricks et al., 2004). For this purpose, teachers need to understand their students, master specific competencies, self-confidence, exceptional interpersonal skills, and a positive vibe to create a learning environment, etc. (van Uden et al., 2013).
Predicting academic achievement is not possible without understanding the role of teachers. As per studies, 50% of the academic achievement depends on students' abilities, and 30% of the academic achievement is contributed by the teachers in a student's success story. The remaining 20% is contributed by the school, peer factors, or the personal life incidents of the students (Hattie, 2003). Another study reported that engagement is a reciprocal process. Deficiency in student engagement is not only from the student’s side. Teachers, school administration, and policies have a lot more to contribute to the disengagement of students (Zyngier, 2008).
Student engagement rises if the students have cordial relationships with the teacher (Fredricks et al., 2004). The same results are supported by another study contributing to the fact that teacher wellness also increases by having a strong positive relationship with students (Spilt, Koomen, & Thijs, 2011). Furthermore, students are more engaged when they feel their teachers are more concerned about them, putting endeavors to establish a friendly, fair, active, and updated learning environment. This higher engagement results in better attendance, higher achievement rates, and a positive impact on overall student participation and scorings (Gambone, Klem, & Connell, 2002). Studies revealed that students have a higher level of satisfaction and engagement, have fewer problems, and perform better when they have positive views about their teacher's contribution (Crosnoe, Johnson, & Elder Jr, 2004). Recent studies suggested that a negative teacher-student relationship severely affects student engagement. Students are reluctant to attend classes. As a result, the performance of students declines, which causes a constant state of anxiety and pressure (van Uden et al., 2013).
Usually, the main drivers that affect the working of the university teachers trigger from the three main elements of teachers’ efficacy that includes: efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, and efficacy in classroom management. The conceptual model below related to the dimensions of a university teacher’s efficacy. The three main themes that affect the efficacy of the teachers include efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, and efficacy in classroom management. The arrows from these three themes towards the university teacher’s efficacy show their effect on the efficacy of the teachers. This study is designed to explore the perceptions and practices of university teachers about students’ engaging instruction.
Methods and Materials
This research study used a qualitative multiple-case design (Yin, 2018), which enabled the researchers to explore and compare the similarities and differences of each university teacher from a public university in Pakistan.
Data Collection and Analysis Methods
The data were collected using semi-structured interviews from the purposefully selected participants. The sample was selected through purposive sampling. Three teachers from the Department of History from a public university in Pakistan were selected as samples for collecting interview data. The researcher had experience with the population of this study and also the purpose, so the purposive sampling technique was used for this study participants.
Data collected through interviews were coded (Miles, Huberman, & Saldaña, 2020), and themes of significant responses were made to conclude this study. Teachers answered differently and pointed out different aspects that were then analyzed and synthesized thematically to answer the research questions of the study (Yin, 2018; Stake, 2013). Many contradictions and differences between the perceptions and practices were found.
Ethical research practice related to the protection of the participants of the research study in any research study was considered very vital, believing that it is the responsibility of social science researchers to inform and protect the participants of the study and that it is an ethical duty of a researcher to inform the participants of the study about the purpose of the specific research study. The protection of the participants in the research study was concerned with the ways through which information is treated. There were no serious threats to any of the participants of the study. Despite any chance of threats to the participants of the study, various precautionary measures were adopted to ensure the protection and rights of participants. The rights and interests of the participants of the study were considered on priority. The researcher committed to keeping the names and other identifying characteristics of the participants of the study confidential. Precautionary measures were adopted to keep the collected information secure. No one had access to data and records except the research team.
This section deals with the analysis of teachers’ perceptions about their effectiveness at the higher education level. Four teachers from the Department of History at the University of Gujrat were part of the sample to take teachers’ perceptions. All four teachers were PhD in History. An interview guide for teachers was used for this purpose.
Student engagement—the tendency of a student to be behaviorally, emotionally, and cognitively involved in academic activities—is a key dimension in motivation research. Engaged students demonstrate more effort, experience more positive emotions, and pay more attention in the classroom as compared to less engaged peers. Moreover, students’ engagement is linked with positive outcomes of the students that include high grades and decreased dropouts.
Teachers have a significant role in their student’s engagement and motivation. A teacher’s confidence and enjoyment in teaching, pedagogical efficacy, and affective orientations in the classroom have a positive impact on student engagement and motivation. This section presents teachers’ perceptions and practices about student’s engagement.
Dealing with the Students showing low Interest in the Class
Several questions were asked to investigate teachers’ perceptions and practices of whether they motivate the students who show low interest in the class. Teacher 1 replied that he motivated his students. Moreover, the teacher stated that he had noticed in his forty years of teaching experience that nobody is born with a dull mind, and low interest results in low academic performance. He said: “Teachers are just like parents: they look after their weak child giving him extra care as compared to other children. The teachers have to give extra attention to the students who take less interest in class, and they should treat them as parents.”
Teacher 2 stated that she always motivated her students with low interest in the class and always tried to know the reasons for students’ lack of interest in the class. She said: “I try to know whether my class is feeling bored: If the answer is yes, then I give attention to myself and try to make a change in myself. I ask the students that if they are not getting the idea about the topic, I am here thousands of times to guide, you can ask me again and again.” According to her, the questioning technique is beneficial to diagnose the problem area. Moreover, she said: “At this level, I have noticed that behind lack of interest usually, students have background problems like family problems, personality issues and lack of confidence, etc.”
Teacher 3 stated that he often made eye to eye contact with his students and tried to motivate them for classroom activities. In this way, they actively participate in classroom activities. Furthermore, he said: “I call the students with their names. Sometimes I ask questions from the students and motivate them to share their ideas. Resultantly, students become active, mentally present and conscious because they feel that teacher is observing us.”
Dealing with Mischievous Students
Teacher 1 stated that mischiefs were always caused by intelligent students while dull students never made disruptions in her class. Moreover, he suggested that: “Teacher should be polite with them instead of getting personal with them or victimize them.” He also stated that he diverts the attention of naughty students from mischief and engages them by giving them some responsibility.
Teacher 2 replied that she ignored the naughty students once or twice, but when students continued to disturb the whole class through their disruptions, then she dealt with them politely. She added: “I am strictly against punishment at this level of education. I am not even in favor of getting students out of class.”
Teacher 3 explained that at this level, mischief is not found. Moreover, he said: “I have no experience of mischievous students at this level of education.”
Engaging lazy Students’ in Co-curricular Activities
Teacher 1 favored arranging a study tour to engage lazy students in co-curricular activities. Describing the importance of field visits, he stated: “Students feel more comfortable in fieldwork and learn better than in the classroom. I think teachers and students feel closer to each other and discuss freely during these visits.”
Teacher 2 explained that she tried to motivate the lazy students to engage them in co-curricular activities, but usually, students did not involve themselves in such activities. She also stated: “I think teachers have no check and balance over lazy students to engage them in co-curricular activities. The teacher can just put their names in games but cannot force them to participate in such activities. Sometimes teachers are not 100% sure that such students will take part in co-curricular activities or not.”
Teacher 3 described that he engaged all the students, including lazy students, in co-curricular activities. Moreover, he said: “I encourage lazy students by forcing them to take part in activities like sports gala, seminars, and study tours. I also give different individual tasks like chart making and map drawing of different countries to make lazy students part of co-curricular activities.”
Engaging slow Learners in Classroom Activities
Teacher 1 explained that he tried to teach slow learners at a low level. Quoting an example, he said: “If you are a writer, then you don’t write for yourself or only for intelligent people, you write for the ordinary people. Most people have normal IQ levels, and teachers have to address average students as well because the majority of the students have a normal IQ level.” Further advocating his point, he said: “In Holy Quran Allah also says that talk to people according to their understanding.”
Teacher 2 described that she was also a slow learner. She further said: “My mother used to teach me a single concept a thousand times, then I got the idea.” She further explained that at the start of the session, she used to say to his class that they would learn through discussion. If students do not understand anything, then they can ask the questions without any hesitation. She quoted Aristotle and said: “Once upon a time, somebody told Aristotle that you are an amazing and great teacher. Aristotle replied, ‘O gentleman! You have no idea about the questioning of my students. Their questions force me to update my knowledge, and I learn more.” She further added: “I tell my students to ask the questions because, after six months, your questions will be the reason behind my good position.”
Teacher 3 described that he primarily focused on discussions and informed the students about the topic one day before the lecture, and during these discussions, he sometimes noticed slow learners. He believed that they were few at this level. He explained that he always pinpointed such students and asked more questions from them than other students. Additionally, he said: “I encourage slow learners by asking that this is not shameful, so don't feel shame in learning. I am also a student: I am also here for learning. Every person makes mistakes in the learning process and learns from trial and error. You can raise questions about the topic. I am here to solve your difficulties even if these are outside the classroom.”
Mostly used instructional strategies in the classroom
Teacher 1 shared that he mostly focused on the lecture method. Moreover, he suggested that teachers should make their lectures interesting and informative because it is necessary for effective teaching.
Teacher 2 replied with an example of a book in which the writer explained the best learning process. She quoted: “The writer says that best learning occurs by throwing questions in the class and then discussing these questions for better learning.” Moreover, she said: “I arrange many activities like finding a book and give marks on searching for books, I arranged colors day according to the flag colors of other countries and give rewards to my students. I also try to raise questions related to the topic and motivate the students for questioning.”
Identifying the instructional strategies, teacher 3 stated that he uses intangible and tangible material related to the topic during teaching. He added: “When I teach civilizations, then I use different maps, photographs. If you visit my classrooms, you can see different maps and charts made by the students hanging on the walls so that students can get an idea of ancient civilizations from these charts. I have many collections in tangible form related to the Indus valley, like boats, stamps, seals, and statues. During teaching, I show these materials to the students. On the other side, travelling is my passion. I have many collections of images related to the different places that I use during teaching.”
Responding to difficult Questions Raised by the Students
Teacher 1 replied that he always prepared the lecture before going to class. Teacher 1 said: “If a student takes an interest in class and raises questions, then the teacher must answer them by preparing well to face these questions.”
Teacher 2 also reported that she always prepared the lecture before going to class. Teacher 2 said: “If I have no answer to any question, then instead of telling a lie and misguiding the students, I tell them that I will tell you in the next class.”
Teacher 3 explained that the Al-Mighty Allah has perfect knowledge. Moreover, he said: “As human beings, we have little knowledge. A man learns till the last breath of life. If I have no information about the question raised by students, then I simply say that we leave it for tomorrow. I don’t mislead the students.”Quoting an example of the Prophet, she said: “When people asked the questions from any prophet: they waited for “Wahee” (answers from God) and then answered the questions.”
Considering the students’ individual differences
Teacher 1 explained that he considered individual differences during the teaching-learning process. He also stated that in social sciences, teachers dealt with their students with different habits and techniques. Furthermore, he said: “There is no rigid formula like 2+2=4 to deal with the individual differences among the students. I think differences are blessings. If we have the most individual differences, we will have more discussions and will explore more knowledge, and share more ideas.”
Teacher 2 stated she did consider the individual differences of the students. She explained that if a lesson is planned for low-level students, then intelligent students will be affected, and if it is planned for intelligent students, then low-level students will be suffered. She iterated: “I use the middle way of teaching both intelligent and low-level students. I assign work to the students according to their capacity levels. Initially, I tend to judge the understanding of my students, and then I give them assignments and projects, according to their IQ level and understanding.”
Teacher 3 explained that if the content is delivered for fast learners, then slow learners will be affected, and if delivered for slow learners, then fast learners will be affected. Moreover, he said: “Mostly slow and fast learners are few in class, so I give extra work to fast learners and assign work according to the capacity of slow learners.”
Teacher 1 explained that to make effective communication with the class, he made an eye to eye contact with students. He further stated that unless the teacher did not maintain this close monitoring of every student in the classroom, it would be difficult to involve everyone.
Teacher 2 replied that she assigned a topic and asked the whole class to share ideas about the topic to make effective communication. She further said: “I also share my views and encourage the whole class to ensure their active participation in classroom discussions.”
Teacher 3 explained that communication is a two-way process. He said: “I boost up my students to raise the questions. If students avoid doing so, then I ask questions during teaching for students’ oral assessment. In this way, communication also becomes effective between the teacher and the students.”
Teacher 1 explained that he often gave assignments like report writing to develop a student’s creativity. He further suggested: “Teachers must encourage students by giving them different incentives.”
Teacher 2 shared that to make her students creative; she assigned different topics to the students for writing articles on these topics. Moreover, she guided the students to publish these articles in research journals. She also said: “I think this is the best way to enhance students’ knowledge, skills and creativity.”
Identifying the activities, teacher 3 stated that he arranged field visits according to the topics and encouraged the student to ensure their participation in field visits. He then assigned them to write a report on their field visit.
Removing Students’ Difficulties in Learning
Teacher 1 stated: “If students feel difficulty in learning, then he explains them in detail and accessible ways. I always involve my students in my lectures to make the teaching-learning process purposeful.”
Teacher 2 explained that she had no problems repeating the lecture if students ever felt lost or had difficulty in learning. She said: “If any student doesn’t understand the lesson, then I give them home assignments related to the topic, but I feel I must try every way for my students.”
Teacher 3 responded if any student feels difficulty in learning, then he repeats the lecture twice or thrice. He also said: “Mostly, I give them the basic idea in Urdu because I think students learn better in their mother tongue. Secondly, students feel difficulty in theoretical things, so I try my best to apply those theories so that students can understand easily.”
Ensuring students’ Participation in Discussions
Teacher 1 reported that he ensured the participation of students in classroom discussions by asking them questions. He said: “I ask questions from the students about the previous lecture and award marks to the students on their active involvement and participation in classroom discussions because human beings are naturally greedy. It mostly works for a lot of students.”
To ensure the participation of students in class, Teacher 2 stressed making the lectures interactive by question-answering. She said: “If students avoid interacting in classroom discussions, then I have to force them to respond to the questions and participate in classroom discussions whether they want to participate or not.”
Teacher 3 replied that he announced the topic one day before the discussion, asking the students to prepare the topic. Moreover, he said: “The strength of students is usually low in the M. Phil. classes. So, I have no problem with managing repeated classroom discussions.”
Dealing with Disruptive behaviors of the Students in Class
Teacher 1 explained if a teacher failed to satisfy his students at the start of the course, then students usually exhibit disruptive behaviors. He further said: “Students are like fruits: whichever type of seeds teachers sow, they will harvest the same. I try to understand students’ problems and satisfy them in the teaching-learning process as much as I can.”
Teacher 2 shared a different point of view. According to her, students didn’t show any disruptive behaviors at the M.Phil level, especially in her class.
Teacher 3 explained that he strictly followed classroom rules and also demanded from students to follow class norms. He quoted his general habits: “Whenever I enter the classroom, I switch off my cell phone first. I treat harshly the student who shows any disruptive behavior. Sometimes I ask them if they have no classroom ethics, then they have no need to come into my classes. I think students also have an idea about the nature of their teachers and their expected reactions.”
Time Management to Perform classroom Activities Effectively
Teacher 1 described that he could manage his time effectively. He elaborated: “I make a plan of how much time I will take for delivering the lecture, and how much time will be consumed in discussions. I also recognize which components are necessary and the time required to manage these components.”
Teacher 2 explained that she manages her time effectively. Moreover, she said: “I divide my task into small components and mention time in front of the components. This includes the amount of planned time for the lecture, discussions, and questioning answers.”
Teacher 3 stated that he prepared folders of every course and revised these folders at the start of the session. He added: “I think at this level, teachers have enough time to manage their classroom activities effectively.”
Dealing with the Mischief of Naughty Students during Class
The teacher 1stated that he gave attention to the naughty students and dealt politely with them to deal with the situation. He further stated: “He tries to know the reason behind their actions and then cope with the situation.”
Teacher 2 described that she very politely deals with naughty students, and sometimes she even involved herself in naughtiness.
Teacher 3 said: “Mostly students are mature at this level of education, and they mostly avoid making any mischief.”
Teacher 1 described that the university provides 16 weeks plan to each teacher, and teachers are bound to follow it strictly. He added: “The amount of curriculum that is needed to be covered before the mid-term exam and schedules of quizzes are pre-planned. These settle routines and pace for the teacher to smoothly run all classroom activities.”
Teacher 2 explained that she set a plan in her mind, and she continued to revisit it to ensure she would be able to complete everything in time as per the schedule.
Teacher 3 responded that his five years of experience had already established his academic routine and pace of covering the curriculum. He fully followed the schedules as advised by the university.
Discussions and Conclusion
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of teachers regarding students’ engagement.
Detail interviews were conducted to gather data. An in-depth analysis of data was organized around three major themes, that is, students’ engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management. These themes were consistent among all the respondents. These themes were based on the experiences shared by the teachers.
The theme of student engagement highlights the importance of participation of the student during their learning process, the behavior of the students during the class, reaction towards a challenging task and attendance ratio, etc. This theme is often supported by the behavioral dimension of student engagement. The study also highlights the role played by teachers in solving problems, keeping the student motivated and making the learning process enjoyable, etc.
The second theme, instructional strategies, relates to the strategies and practices used by the teachers to keep their students engaged and motivated. Teachers used various strategies and mediums of instruction to keep students energetic. Language, activities, ideas, communication, and participation often are the strategies used by the teachers to engage students.
Classroom management is one of the significant tasks of teachers. Happening and enjoyable classes often attract students. The student usually shows higher attendance in those classes that are interesting, involve a specific type of activities, or have an enjoyable and active learning process. Monotonous tasks and continuous instruction by teachers like a monologue often make class boring and dull. Classroom management and instructional strategies are the themes related to the cognitive dimension of student engagement.
The findings of the current study are consistent with the literature. Students’ engagement plays an essential role in creating a positive learning environment, better outcomes, increased quality of education, etc. However, this is not possible without the contributions of the teachers. A cordial relationship with the teacher promotes the learning environment. Students got inspired by the leadership skills of the teachers. His personality, knowledge skills, positive attitude, motivation role, and management skills play a significant role in enhancing student engagement. The same types of results were reported by the studies (Coates, 2005; Fredricks et al., 2004; Stephens, 2015; Thijs & Verkuyten, 2009).
The current study explains the perception and practices of the teachers about student engaging instruction. The study highlights the practices used by the teachers to keep the students motivated and engaged. This study provides an insight into the multi-dimensional concept of engaging instruction. This study is highly significant as it provides contextual data of teachers’ perceptions about engaging instructions. The institution and policymakers can use the findings to devise new policies and facilitate students and teachers to enhance student engagement.
The current study incorporates the perceptions and practices of teachers about engaging instruction. Future researchers can conduct similar studies with quantitative or mixed-method research designs to get triangular results and greater generalizability. Student engagement is not limited to the teachers, but the institution also plays an important role. The future researcher can investigate the impact of the administrative process and institutional policies on student engagement. The study can also be conducted while considering traditional or non-traditional student aspects. After like age, gender and ethnicity, diversity can also be researched while studying student engagement.